For details on the data and analysis methods behind the facts presented on the home page and FAQ, please refer to the references below, broken down into information categories.
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Electrification is an affordable alternative to gas in most cases, and in fact is becoming standard for affordable housing and multi-family buildings.
Air source heat pumps (ASHPs) have a COP of 2.5+ even in cold New England winters
There are many ccASHPs available, some with extremely high season COP values and that go down to very cold temperatures (-15 F)
Electrical demand in New England is decreasing, overall and peak demand. Year to year variability is around 1%.
Reference: New England’s Electricity Use
Natural gas generates about 50% of the electricity that we use
Reference: ISO-NE Resource Mix
Electricity emission rate of about 700 lbs/MWh. Decreased by 200 lbs/MWh over the past decade, or about 20%, and shows no signs of slowing
Reference: ISO-NE 2017 Emissions Report
About 80% of electricity generated within MA is from natural gas
Reference: Massachusetts State Energy Profile
Health & the Environment
CO2 emissions from different fossil fuel sources
Reference: Greenhouse Gases Equivalencies Calculator
Portion of residential energy going towards space and water heating is about 75%
Reference: MA Residential Energy Use
We cannot meet our legal obligations for emissions reductions while continuing widespread use of fossil fuels for home heating.
There is a solid legal basis for Towns to pass this bylaw
Affordable housing is leading the way in terms of electrification, even without laws like this.
Electric buildings are increasingly the norm for afforadable housing and multi-family buildings
Reference: List of example buildings